The output of lexical analyzer is

A set of regular expressions
Syntax tree
Set of tokens
Strings of character
      _____________________________________________________________________________________
If conversion from one type to another type is done automatically by the compiler then,it is called

Implicit conversion
coercions
both a and b
None of the above
      _____________________________________________________________________________________
Syntax directed translation scheme is desirable because 

It is based on the syntax
Its description is independent of any implementation
It is easy to modify
All of these
      _____________________________________________________________________________________
A top down parser generates 

Right most derivation
Right most derivation in reverse
Left most derivation
Left most derivation in reverse
      _____________________________________________________________________________________
 Macro-processors are ______

Hardware
Compiler
Registers
None of the above
      _____________________________________________________________________________________
Inherited attribute is a natural choice in

Keeping track of variable declaration
Checking for the correct use of L values and R values
Both A and B
None of these
      _____________________________________________________________________________________
Concept which can be used to identify loops is 

Dominators
Reducible graphs
Depth first ordering
All of these
      _____________________________________________________________________________________
Reduction in strength means 

Replacing run time computation by compile time computation
Removing loop invariant computation
Removing common sub expression
Replacing a costly operation by a relatively cheaper one
      _____________________________________________________________________________________
the term environment in programming language semantics is said as

function that maps a name to value held there
Function that maps a name to storage location
The functin that maps a storage location to the value held there
None of the above
      _____________________________________________________________________________________
A self relocating program is one which 

cannot be made to execute in any area of storage other than the designated for it at the time of its coding or translation
Consists of a program and relevant information for its relocation
Can itself perform the relocation of its address sensitive protions
All of the above
      _____________________________________________________________________________________
The lexical analyzer takes_________as input and produces a stream of_______as output. 

Source program,tokens
Token,source program
Either A and B
None of the above
      _____________________________________________________________________________________
Intermediate code generation phase gets input from 

Lexical analyzer
Syntax analyzer
Semantic analyzer
Error handling
      _____________________________________________________________________________________
A grammar is meaningless 

If terminal set and non terminal set are not disjoint
If left hand side of a production is a single terminal
If left hand side of a production has no non terminal
All of these
      _____________________________________________________________________________________
The optimization technique which is typically applied on loops is 

Removal of invariant computation
Peephole optimization
Constant folding
All of these
      _____________________________________________________________________________________
resolution is externally defined symbols is performed by 

linker
loader
compiler
assembler
      _____________________________________________________________________________________
Which of the following is used for grouping of characters into tokens?

Parser
Code optimization
Code generator
Lexical analyzer
      _____________________________________________________________________________________
Whether a given pattern constitutes a token or not depends on the 

Source language
Target language
Compiler
All of these
      _____________________________________________________________________________________
A optimizing compiler

Is optimized to occupy less space
Is optimized to take less time for execution
Optimized the code
None of the above.
      _____________________________________________________________________________________
Which of the following symbols table implementation is based on the property of locality of reference?

Hash table
Search tree
Self organizing list
Linear list
      _____________________________________________________________________________________
Three address code involves 

Exactly 3 address
At most most 3 address
No unary operators
None of these
      _____________________________________________________________________________________


A
B
C
D
      _____________________________________________________________________________________
A compiler is 

A program that place program into memory and prepares them for execution
A program that automates the translation of assembly language into machine language
program that accepts program written in high level language and produces an object program
A program that appears to execute a source program as if it were machine language
      _____________________________________________________________________________________
In a bottom up evaluation of a syntax direction definition ,inherited attributes can

Always be evaluated
Be evaluated only if the definition is L -attributed
Be evaluated only if the definition has synthesized attributes
None of the above
      _____________________________________________________________________________________
Which of the following actions an operator precedence parser may take to recover from an error ?

Insert symbols onto the stack
Delete symbols from the stack
Insert or delete symbols from the input
All of the above
      _____________________________________________________________________________________
DAG representation of a basic block allows

Automatic detection of local common sub expressions
Automatic detection of induction variables
Automatic detection of loop variant
None of the above
      _____________________________________________________________________________________
Recursive descent parsing is an example 

Top down parsing
Bottom up parsing
Predictive parsing
None of the above
      _____________________________________________________________________________________
The graph that shows basic blocks and their successor relationship is called

DAG
Flow chart
Control graph
Hamiltonian graph
      _____________________________________________________________________________________
Generation of intermediate code based on a abstract machine model is useful in compilers because 

it makes implementation of lexical analysis and syntax analysis easier
syntax directed translation can be written for intermediate code generation.
It enhances the portability of the front end of the compiler
it is not possible to generate code for real machines directly from high level language programs
      _____________________________________________________________________________________
Advantage of panic mode of error recovery is that 

It is simple ti implement
It never gets into an infinite loop
Both A and B
None of these
      _____________________________________________________________________________________
In operator precedence parsing , precedence relations are defoned 

For all pair of non terminals
For all pair of terminals
To delimit the handle
Only for a certain pair of terminals
      _____________________________________________________________________________________
An intermediate code form is

Postfix notation
Syntax trees
Three address code
All of these
      _____________________________________________________________________________________
Code can be optimized at

Source from user
Target code
Intermediate code
All of the above
      _____________________________________________________________________________________
Consider the program given below, in a block-structured pseudo-language with lexical scoping and nesting of procedures permitted.
Program main;
Var ...
Procedure A1;
Var ...
Call A2;
End A1
Procedure A2;
Var ...
Procedure A21;
Var ...
Call A1;
End A21
Call A21;
End A2
Call A1;
End main.
Consider the calling chain: Main -> A1 -> A2 -> A21 -> A1
The correct set of activation records along with their access links is given by


A
B
C
D
      _____________________________________________________________________________________
Pee hole optimization

Loop optimization
Local optimization
Constant folding
Data flow analysis
      _____________________________________________________________________________________
In which way(s) a macroprocessor for assembly language can be implemented ?

Independent two-pass processor
Independent one-pass processor
Expand macrocalls and substitute arguments
All of the above
      _____________________________________________________________________________________
A compiler for a high level language that runs on one machine and produce code for different machine is called 

Optimizing compiler
One pass compiler
Cross compiler
Multipass compiler
      _____________________________________________________________________________________
Which of the following is used for grouping of characters into tokens (in a computer)

A parser
Code optimizer
Code generator
Scanner
      _____________________________________________________________________________________
Local and loop optimization in turn provide motivation for 

Data flow analysis
Constant folding
Pee hole optimization
DFA and constant folding
      _____________________________________________________________________________________
A simple two-pass assembler does which of the following the first phase

It allocates space for the literals.
It computes the total length of the program.
It builds the symbol table for the symbols and their values.
All of above
      _____________________________________________________________________________________
the translator is best described as

Application software
A system software
A hardware component
All of the above
      _____________________________________________________________________________________
Which of the following is the most powerful parser? 

SLR
LALR
Canonical LR
Operator precedence
      _____________________________________________________________________________________
Which of the following are language processors?

Assembler
Compilers
interpreters
All of these
      _____________________________________________________________________________________
Relocating bits used by relocating loader are specified by 

Relocating loader itself
Linker
Assembler
Macro processor
      _____________________________________________________________________________________
Synthesized attribute can be easily simulated by a

LL grammar
Ambiguous grammar
LR grammar
None of the above
      _____________________________________________________________________________________
A compiler that runs on one machine and produces code for a different machine is called

Cross compilation
One pass compilation
Two pass compilation
None of the above
      _____________________________________________________________________________________
_________or scanning is the process where the stream of characters making up the source program is read from left to right and grouped into tokens.

Lexical analysis
Diversion
Modeling
None of the above
      _____________________________________________________________________________________
Input to code generator

Source code
Intermediate code
Target code
All of the above
      _____________________________________________________________________________________
In analysis the compilation PL/I program the description Create of more optimal matrix is associated with 

Assembly and output
code generation
Syntax analysis
machine independent optimization
      _____________________________________________________________________________________
A bottom up parser generates 

right most derivation
right most derivation in reverse
left most derivation
left most derivation in reverse
      _____________________________________________________________________________________
In an absolute loading scheme which loader function is accomplished by assembler ?

re-allocation
allocation
linking
loading
 
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